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- A History of Fascism, 1914-1945
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As a conservative and a monarchist, he opposed the abolition of the monarchy and the establishment of a republic in With the elections, the conservative Spanish Confederation of Autonomous Right-wing Groups lost by a narrow margin and the leftist Popular Front came to power. Intending to overthrow the republic, Franco followed other generals in attempting a failed coup that precipitated the Spanish Civil War.
In , he declared Spain a monarchy with himself as regent. Franco gained military support from various regimes and groups, especially Nazi Germany and the Kingdom of Italy, while the Republican side was supported by Spanish communists and anarchists as well as the Soviet Union, Mexico, and the International Brigades. Leaving half a million dead, the war was eventually won by Franco in He established a military dictatorship, which he defined as a totalitarian state. Under Franco, Spain became a one-party state, as the various conservative and royalist factions were merged into the fascist party and other political parties were outlawed.
- A History of Fascism, 1914–1945!
- A History of Fascism, 1914-1945; Fascism: A History; Fascism: Past, Present, Future.
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Franco was also able to take advantage of the resources of the Axis Powers and chose to avoid becoming heavily involved in the Second World War. Francisco Franco: A photo of Francisco Franco in The consistent points in Francoism included authoritarianism, nationalism, national Catholicism, militarism, conservatism, anti-communism, and anti-liberalism. The Spanish State was authoritarian: non-government trade unions and all political opponents across the political spectrum were either suppressed or controlled by all means, including police repression.
Most country towns and rural areas were patrolled by pairs of Guardia Civil , a military police for civilians, which functioned as a chief means of social control. Franco was also the focus of a personality cult which taught that he had been sent by Divine Providence to save the country from chaos and poverty. Bullfighting and flamenco were promoted as national traditions, while those traditions not considered Spanish were suppressed. All cultural activities were subject to censorship, and many were forbidden entirely, often in an erratic manner.
Francoism professed a strong devotion to militarism, hypermasculinity, and the traditional role of women in society. A woman was to be loving to her parents and brothers and faithful to her husband, and reside with her family. Most progressive laws passed by the Second Republic were declared void. Women could not become judges, testify in trial, or become university professors. The Civil War had ravaged the Spanish economy. Infrastructure had been damaged, workers killed, and daily business severely hampered.
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Franco initially pursued a policy of autarky, cutting off almost all international trade. The policy had devastating effects, and the economy stagnated. Only black marketeers could enjoy an evident affluence. Falangism is widely considered a fascist ideology. Under the leadership of Francisco Franco, many of the radical elements of Falangism considered fascist were diluted, and it largely became an authoritarian, conservative ideology connected with Francoist Spain.
Falangism emphasized the need for authority, hierarchy, and order in society. Falangism is anti-communist, anti-capitalist, anti-democratic, and anti-liberal, although under Franco, the Falange abandoned its original anti-capitalist tendencies, declaring the ideology to be fully compatible with capitalism.
It supports criminalization of strikes by employees and lockouts by employers as illegal acts. Falangism supports the state to have jurisdiction of setting wages. The Franco-era Falange supported the development of cooperatives such as the Mondragon Corporation, because it bolstered the Francoist claim of the nonexistence of social classes in Spain during his rule. The conditions of economic hardship caused by the Great Depression brought about significant social unrest around the world, leading to a major surge of fascism and in many cases, the collapse of democratic governments.
Formulate an explanation for the decreasing number of democratic governments in Europe during this period. One early admirer of the Italian Fascists was Adolf Hitler, who, less than a month after the March, had begun to model himself and the Nazi Party upon Mussolini and the Fascists. The Beer Hall Putsch was crushed by Bavarian police, and Hitler and other leading Nazis were arrested and detained until Amid a political crisis in Spain involving increased strike activity and rising support for anarchism, Spanish army commander Miguel Primo de Rivera engaged in a successful coup against the Spanish government in and installed himself as a dictator as head of a conservative military junta that dismantled the established party system of government.
Upon achieving power, Primo de Rivera sought to resolve the economic crisis by presenting himself as a compromise arbitrator figure between workers and bosses, and his regime created a corporatist economic system based on the Italian Fascist model.
A History of Fascism, 1914-1945
In Lithuania in , Antanas Smetona rose to power and founded a fascist regime under his Lithuanian Nationalist Union. About two thousand men marched to the center of Munich where they confronted the police, resulting in the death of 16 Nazis and four policemen. The events of the Great Depression resulted in an international surge of fascism and the creation of several fascist regimes and regimes that adopted fascist policies.
With the rise of Hitler and the Nazis to power in , liberal democracy was dissolved in Germany, and the Nazis mobilized the country for war, with expansionist territorial aims against several countries. In the s the Nazis implemented racial laws that deliberately discriminated against, disenfranchised, and persecuted Jews and other racial and minority groups.
Fascist movements grew stronger elsewhere in Europe. The fascist Iron Guard movement in Romania soared in political support after , gaining representation in the Romanian government, and an Iron Guard member assassinated Romanian prime minister Ion Duca. During the February 6, crisis, France faced the greatest domestic political turmoil since the Dreyfus Affair when the fascist Francist Movement and multiple far-right movements rioted en masse in Paris against the French government resulting in major political violence. A variety of para-fascist governments that borrowed elements from fascism were formed during the Great Depression, including those of Greece, Lithuania, Poland, and Yugoslavia.
The Al-Muthanna Club of Iraq was a pan-Arab movement that supported Nazism and exercised its influence in the Iraqi government through cabinet minister Saib Shawkat, who formed a paramilitary youth movement. Several, mostly short-lived fascist governments and prominent fascist movements were formed in South America during this period. He even started a paramilitary Blackshirts arm as a copy of the Italian group, although the Union lost heavily in the elections and faded into obscurity.
Fascism in its Epoch is a book by historian and philosopher Ernst Nolte, widely regarded as his magnum opus and a seminal work on the history of fascism. The book, translated into English in as The Three Faces of Fascism , argues that fascism arose as a form of resistance to and a reaction against modernity. Skip to main content. The Interwar Period. Search for:. The Rise of Fascism Mussolini and Fascist Italy After aligning itself with Italian conservatives, the fascist party rose to prominence using violence and intimidation, eventually seizing power in Rome in under the leadership of Benito Mussolini.
Learning Objectives Evaluate why Mussolini was able to seize power in Italy. For the next several years, the small group of fascists took part in political actions, taking advantage of worker strikes to incite violence. Around , the fascists began to align themselves with mainstream conservatives, increasing membership exponentially.
Beginning in , Fascist paramilitaries escalated their strategy from attacking socialist offices and homes of socialist leadership figures to violent occupation of cities, eventually setting their sites on Rome. From to , Fascism steadily became entrenched in power. Opposition deputies were denied access to parliament, censorship was introduced, and a December decree made Mussolini solely responsible to the King.
Fascism Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian nationalism that came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe, characterized by one-party totalitarian regimes run by charismatic dictators, glorification of violence, and racist ideology. Learning Objectives Define fascism. Key Takeaways Key Points Fascism is a far-right authoritarian political ideology that emerged in the early 20th century and rose to prominence after World War I in several nations, notably Italy, Germany, and Japan.
Fascists believe that liberal democracy is obsolete and regard the complete mobilization of society under a totalitarian one-party state, led by a dictator, as necessary to prepare a nation for armed conflict and respond effectively to economic difficulties. The term originated in Italy and is derived from fascio, meaning a bundle of rods, and is used to symbolize strength through unity: a single rod is easily broken, while the bundle is difficult to break.
The term is typically used to refer to the end of the 19th century. This was widely thought to be a period of degeneration, but at the same time one of hope for a new beginning. It holds that liberal democracy is obsolete and that the complete mobilization of society under a totalitarian one-party state is necessary to prepare a nation for armed conflict and to respond effectively to economic difficulties.
Social Darwinism : A name given to various ideologies emerging in the second half of the 19th century, trying to apply biological concepts of natural selection and survival of the fittest in human society. It was largely developed by Herbert Spencer, who compared society to a living organism and argued that just as biological organisms evolve through natural selection, society evolves and increases in complexity through analogous processes. Fascism in Japan During the s, Japan moved into political totalitarianism, ultranationalism, and fascism, culminating in its invasion of China in Learning Objectives Examine how fascism manifested itself in Japan.
Throughout the s, various nationalistic and xenophobic ideologies emerged among right-wing Japanese intellectuals, but it was not until the early s that these ideas gained full traction in the ruling regime. International criticism of Japan following the invasion led to Japan withdrawing from the League of Nations, which led to political isolation and a redoubling of ultranationalist and expansionist tendencies. Key Terms statism : The belief that the state should control either economic or social policy or both, sometimes taking the form of totalitarianism, but not necessarily.
It is effectively the opposite of anarchism. This period was longer than the reign of any previous Japanese emperor. This was part of an overall global period of social upheavals and conflicts, such as the Great Depression and World War II. Shinto : A Japanese ethnic religion that focuses on ritual practices carried out diligently to establish a connection between present-day Japan and its ancient past.
What Is Fascism? A Brief Guide to Its History | GQ
Its practices were first recorded and codified in the written historical records of the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki in the 8th century. This term applies to the religion of public shrines devoted to the worship of a multitude of gods kami , suited to various purposes such as war memorials and harvest festivals.
The period spanned from to and was responsible for the emergence of Japan as a modernized nation in the early 20th century, and its rapid rise to great power status in the international system. Learning Objectives Summarize the rise of the Franco regime in Spain. Francisco Franco, a Spanish general, rose to prominence in the mids, but his right-wing party failed to gained power in the elections.
Best Books to Understand Fascism and How It Works
Franco and other military leaders staged a failed coup that led to the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, which lasted from Spanish Civil War : A war from to between the Republicans, who were loyal to the democratic, left-leaning and relatively urban Second Spanish Republic in an alliance of convenience with the Anarchists, and the Nationalists, a falangist, Carlist, and a largely aristocratic conservative group led by General Francisco Franco.
Francisco Franco : A Spanish general who ruled over Spain as a dictator for 36 years from until his death. He took control of Spain from the government of the Second Spanish Republic after winning the Civil War, and was in power , when the Spanish Constitution of went into effect. The Decline of European Democracy The conditions of economic hardship caused by the Great Depression brought about significant social unrest around the world, leading to a major surge of fascism and in many cases, the collapse of democratic governments.
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Learning Objectives Formulate an explanation for the decreasing number of democratic governments in Europe during this period. One early admirer of the Italian Fascists was Adolf Hitler. Less than a month after the March, he began to model himself and the Nazi Party upon Mussolini and the Fascists. The Great Depression, which caused significant social unrest throughout the world, led to the major surge of fascism. Forged from a partnership between a university press and a library, Project MUSE is a trusted part of the academic and scholarly community it serves.
LOG IN. A History of Fascism, — In this Book. Additional Information. A History of Fascism, — Stanley G. Table of Contents. Cover Download Save. Title Page, Copyright Download Save. Contents pp. Illustrations pp. Tables p. Preface pp. Introduction: Fascism: A Working Definition pp.
Part I: History pp. The Impact of World War I pp.