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  1. PAS Intermediate
  2. Planetary nebula

Only later when the stellar core contracts enough to heat up and emit ionizing radiation does the nebula begin to properly glow, at which point it qualifies as a full planetary nebula. Images of OH in optical light top and 12 CO bottom taken from the literature.

PAS Intermediate

One particular mystery is that of their shapes: if these nebulae are formed by stars expelling their outer layers, we would naively expect them to be simple spherical shells — and yet we observe pre-planetary nebulae to have intricate shapes and patterns. How does the star create these asymmetric shapes?

A team of scientists led by Bruce Balick University of Washington, Seattle has now used simulations to address this question. Panel A: best-fitting simulations of OH , , and yr after the clump and spray are launched.


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Panel B: example from the same family of solutions, in which the mass is reduced by a factor of Click for a closer look. McCall 2 and N.

Arimoto 3. Received: 31 July Accepted: 2 July Using theoretical models of the planetary nebula populations in galaxies, we investigate whether the current oxygen abundances in bright planetary nebulae can be used to predict the oxygen abundance in the interstellar medium when star formation stopped. These models successfully reproduce a constant planetary nebula luminosity function PNLF peak luminosity, the PNLF shape in galaxies with and without star formation, and the mean densities and oxygen abundances observed in bright planetary nebulae in the Magellanic Clouds.

Planetary nebula

To accomplish this, we had to couple the evolution of the nebular shell and the central star, and impose a mass-dependent nebular covering factor. In all galaxies, these models predict that a gap develops between the abundances observed in bright planetary nebulae and those in the interstellar medium when star formation stopped. This abundance gap depends primarily upon the oxygen abundance achieved in the interstellar medium when star formation stopped, though it also has some sensitivity to the history of star formation.

Other Titles by Martin Griffiths

The abundance gap is always less than 0. For the Milky Way, the predicted abundance gap, 0.


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We also re-examined spectroscopic observations of planetary nebulae in diffuse elliptical galaxies to determine their interstellar medium oxygen abundances when they stopped forming stars.